Fat-soluble vitamins:

a) Vitamin A (Retinol, Retinal)
Plays important roles in vision (component of visual pigment), immune function, skin and cellular health and antioxidant activity.

b) Vitamin D (Ergocalciferol, Cholecalciferol)
Maintains skeletal calcium balance by promoting calcium absorption in the intestines, enhancing bone resorption by increasing osteoclast, maintaining calcium and phosphate levels for bone formation

c) Vitamin E (Tocopherols, Tocotrienols)
It can regulate the healthy cholesterol levels.

d) Vitamin K (Phylloquinone, Menaquinones)
Mostly required for blood coagulation and also involved in metabolic pathways of bone and other tissues.


Water-soluble vitamins:

a) Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
It helps cells to convert carbohydrate into energy. It is also essential for the proper functioning of the heart, muscles and nervous system.

b) Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
It plays a key role in energy metabolism as well as the metabolism of fats, ketones, carbohydrates and proteins.

c) Vitamin B3 (Niacin, Niacinamide)
Niacin is a precursor of NAD+/NADH and NADP+/NADPH which plays essential metabolic roles in living cells. Niacin is involved in both DNA repair and the production of steroid hormones in the adrenal glands.

d) Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid)
Pantothenic acid is required in the synthesis of coenzyme A (CoA), metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and fats. CoA plays its role in synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids.

e) Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine, Pyridoxamine, Pyridoxal)
Vitamin B6, is involved in many aspects of macronutrient metabolism, neurotransmitter synthesis, histamine synthesis, and haemoglobin synthesis and function as well as gene expression. The liver is the main site of vitamin B6 metabolism.

f) Vitamin B7 (Biotin)
Biotin is a coenzyme in the metabolism of fatty acids and leucine, and it plays a role in gluconeogenesis.

g) Vitamin B9 (Folic acid, Folinic acid)
It is especially important in aiding rapid cell division and growth.

h) Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin, Hydroxycobalamin, Methylcobalamin)
It plays a key role in the normal functioning of the brain and nervous system, and in the formation of blood.

i) Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)
Vitamin C is required for the growth and repair of tissues in all parts of the body. It is necessary to form collagen, an important building block for skin, scar tissues, tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels. Vitamin C is essential for healing of wounds, and for the repair and maintenance of cartilage, bones and teeth. Vitamin C possesses antioxidant activity and enhances the immune system.





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